The Kihansi spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis) is a small toad endemic to Tanzania. The species is live-bearing and insectivorous. The Kihansi spray toad is currently categorized as “Extinct in the wild” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), though the species persists in ex situ, captive breeding populations.
The Kihansi spray toad is a small, sexually dimorphic anuran, with females reaching up to 2.9 cm (1.1 in) long and males up to 1.9 cm (0.75 in). The toads display yellow skin coloration with brownish dorsolateral striping. They have webbed toes on their hind legs, but lack expanded toe tips. They lack external ears, but do possess normal anuran inner ear features, with the exception of tympanic membranes and air-filled middle ear cavities. Females are often duller in coloration, and males normally have more significant markings  Additionally, males exhibit dark inguinal patches on their sides where their hind legs meet their abdomens. Abdominal skin is translucent, and developing offspring can often be seen in the bellies of gravid females. The toad breeds by using internal fertilization, in which females retain larvae internally in the oviduct until their offspring are born, and clutch size varies from 5-13.